Download e-book for kindle: Allostasis, Homeostasis, and the Costs of Physiological by Jay Schulkin

By Jay Schulkin

Not like homeostasis, allostasis refers back to the really new thought of "viability via change." This publication addresses uncomplicated physiological regulatory platforms, and examines physically law below duress. It integrates the fundamental innovations of physiological homeostasis with issues resembling melancholy, rigidity, nervousness and dependancy. it is going to curiosity graduate scholars, scientific scholars, and researchers in body structure, epidemiology, endocrinology, neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, and psychology.

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Read e-book online Allostasis, Homeostasis, and the Costs of Physiological PDF

Unlike homeostasis, allostasis refers back to the rather new thought of "viability via switch. " This ebook addresses uncomplicated physiological regulatory platforms, and examines physically law lower than duress. It integrates the fundamental strategies of physiological homeostasis with problems comparable to melancholy, rigidity, anxiousness and dependancy.

Additional resources for Allostasis, Homeostasis, and the Costs of Physiological Adaptation

Example text

Allostasis describes mechanisms that change the controlled variable by predicting what level will be needed and then overriding local feedback to meet anticipated demand. causes the homeostasis model cannot explain. For in contrast to the hypertension caused by a constricted renal artery and the diabetes caused by immune destruction of insulin-secreting cells, these newer disorders present no obviously defective mechanism. Treating them with drugs to fix low-level mechanisms that are not broken turns out not to work particularly well.

All fluctuate with different amplitudes and time constants, and these fluctuations all share a single goal. Yet the goal is not constancy, but coordinated variation to optimize performance at the least cost. This is the core idea of allostasis, the essential principles of which are addressed next. PRINCIPLES OF ALLOSTASIS (PREDICTIVE REGULATION) This section discusses six interrelated principles that underlie allostasis: (1) organisms are designed for efficiency, (2) efficiency requires reciprocal trade-offs, (3) efficiency requires predicting what will be needed, (4) prediction requires each sensor to adapt its sensitivity to the expected range of input, (5) prediction requires each effector to adapt its output to the expected range of demand, and (6) predictive regulation depends on behavior whose neural mechanisms also adapt.

The importance and challenge of predictive regulation is best appreciated by the type 1 diabetic who, to minimize surges of blood glucose, injects insulin before a meal, and who, to allow his muscles to admit glucose, injects insulin before exercise. Sensors Must Match the Expected Range of Input Sensors are designed to transduce a range of inputs into a range of outputs (Fig. 5, upper panel). Typically the input-output curve is sigmoid and set so that its midpoint corresponds to the statistically most probable input (Fig.

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