Download e-book for iPad: Artificial Neural Networks: An Introduction by Kevin L. Priddy

By Kevin L. Priddy

This instructional textual content presents the reader with an knowing of synthetic neural networks (ANNs) and their program, starting with the organic structures which galvanized them, throughout the studying tools which have been built and the information assortment techniques, to the numerous methods ANNs are getting used today.

The fabric is gifted with at the least math (although the mathematical information are integrated within the appendices for readers), and with a greatest of hands-on event. All really expert phrases are incorporated in a word list. the result's a hugely readable textual content that may train the engineer the guiding rules essential to use and follow man made neural networks.

Contents

- Preface
- Acknowledgments
- Introduction
- studying Methods
- info Normalization
- info assortment, practise, Labeling, and enter Coding
- Output Coding
- Post-Processing
- Supervised education Methods
- Unsupervised education Methods
- Recurrent Neural Networks
- A Plethora of Applications
- facing constrained quantities of Data
- Appendix A: The Feedforward Neural Network
- Appendix B: characteristic Saliency
- Appendix C: Matlab Code for varied Neural Networks
- Appendix D: thesaurus of Terms
- References
- Index

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Additional resources for Artificial Neural Networks: An Introduction

Sample text

The networks used in this example were created using Netlab [Nabney, 2002], which is available on the Web as a package of modular Matlab routines. As mentioned previously, feedforward networks can contain any desired transfer function, but the feedforward networks presented in this section contained sigmoidal transfer functions. The training set is presented in Fig. 4 as a four-class problem with overlap between classes. Given the training data presented in Fig. 4, a two-layer feedforward neural network was trained with two input nodes, six hidden-layer nodes, and four output nodes.

It is analogous to students learning the lesson on their own. Two of the most popular unsupervised learning techniques used in the neural-network community are the self-organizing map (SOM), developed by Teuvo Kohonen, and the adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, developed by Stephen Grossberg and Gail Carpenter. The unsupervised training model consists of the environment, represented by a measurement vector. The measurement vector is fed to the learning system and the system response is obtained.

It can also be used to determine the optimal number of hidden neurons. The validation set is used to choose between multiple trained networks. When the validation set is used to stop training, the neural network is optimistically biased, having been exposed to the data. The test set (sometimes called the validation set in machine-learning vocabulary) is a set of samples used only to evaluate the fully trained neural network. 11 Random selection of data from a previously sampled population to form three independent data sets for split-sample testing.

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