By Gifford Weary, Melinda A. Stanley, John H. Harvey (auth.)
This e-book first and foremost was once conceived in 1986 by means of Weary and Harvey as a revi sion and replace in their 1981 views on Attributional tactics (pub lished via Wm. C. Brown," Dubuque, Iowa). even though: toe broad nature of contemporary paintings on attributional tactics and the chance to collabo cost with Melinda Stanley as a coauthor ended in a plan to advance a extra complete paintings than the 1981 booklet. It certainly is an amalgam of our pursuits in social and medical psychology. It represents our dedication to easy theoretical and empirical inquiry mixed with the functions of rules and techniques to realizing attribution in additional naturalistic set tings, and because it unfolds within the lives of alternative forms of humans dealing with various difficulties of dwelling. The publication represents a dedication additionally to the breadth of method of attribution questions epitomized via Fritz Heider's uniquely artistic brain and paintings in pioneering the realm. To us, the attribu tional technique isn't really a sacrosanct college of notion at the human condi tion. it really is, particularly, a physique of rules and findings that we discover to be hugely beneficial in our paintings as social (JH and GW) and medical (GW and MS) psychology students. it truly is an inviting strategy that, as we will describe within the publication, brings jointly rules and paintings from diverse fields in psychology-all fascinated by the pervasive and inestimab1e significance of interpretive job in human event and behavior.
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Extra resources for Attribution
1974). , positive or negative outcome) of the event in affecting how actors and observers will diverge or converge in their causal attributions. Concluding Points About Actor-Observer Differences Monson and Snyder concluded their analysis with the very reasonable suggestion that researchers tum from attempts to verify the divergent perspectives hypothesis to systematic investigations of the when, why, and with what implications for attribution theory of differences between actors and observers.
1) used to validate specific attributions is universal and invariant. Moreover, Kruglanski (1979) has argued that theory should be concerned with this universal logic, or process, underlying knowledge acquisition, not the diverse contents of such social knowledge. While the distinction between specific attributional contents and a universal logic is interesting, the assertion that the latter is universal across cultures and situations surely will need empirical investigation. Actor-Observer Differences in Attributed Causality Jones and Nisbett's Divergent Perspectives Hypothesis One of the provocative extensions of basic attribution ideas has been concerned with the question of how people with different perspectives diverge in their attributions about the causes of the same bepavior.
That is, by taking credit for good acts and denying blame for bad outcomes, an individual presumably is able to enhance or protect his or her self-esteem. Miller and Ross (1975) questioned this motivational interpretation, suggesting that the results of many of the studies often cited as support for self-serving attributional biases could readily be "interpreted in information-processing terms' (p. 224). Specificially, these authors contended that the observed tendency for individuals to accept greater responsibility for positive than for negative outcomes may occur for any or all of several reasons: (a)individuals intend and expect success more than failure and are more likely to make self-ascriptions for expected than for unexpected outcomes; (b) perceived covariation between response and outcome may be more apparent for individuals experiencing a pattern of increasing success than for individuals experiencing constant failure; and (c) people erroneously base their judgments of the contingency between response and outcome on the occurrence of the desired outcome than on any actual degree of contingency.