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D. Endoplasmic reticulum. E. Golgi apparatus. 4. During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? G0. G1. S. G2. M. 2 Genes associated with cancer 25 Basic Sciences for Core Medical Training and the MRCP 26 5. Which of the following enzymes has a ‘proofreading’ role to remove unmatched nucleotides during DNA replication? A. B. C. D. E. RNA primase. DNA ligase. DNA helicase. DNA gyrase. DNA polymerase 1. 6. 60 mmol/L, albumin = 30 g/L, urea = 15 mmol/L, creatinine = 120 μmol/L.

Common examples include skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to strength training and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy in response to aortic valve stenosis. In contrast, hyperplasia represents an increase in organ or tissue volume that results from increased numbers of cells and is a physiological response to an altered stimulus. Examples include hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex in Cushing’s disease (elevated ACTH), benign prostatic hyperplasia (ill-defined cause) and skin callouses (skin thickening arising from keratinocyte accumulation secondary to repeated friction or pressure).

Trace elements Trace elements or micronutrients are chemical compounds required by living organisms in minute amounts for essential reactions, generally to activate or regulate enzymatic steps. 3). Water and plasma volume control This is the most abundant molecule in the body, constituting 40–70% of total body weight, and is the only solvent for the many ions found intra- and extracellularly. Its control depends on assessment of the overall concentration of plasma (heavily influenced by sodium concentration) at the hypothalamus and assessment of plasma volume by blood pressure monitoring at baroreceptors.

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