Download e-book for kindle: Calculus (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences) by Gudmund R. Iversen

By Gudmund R. Iversen

This publication bargains an outline of the significant principles in calculus and offers examples of ways calculus is used to translate many real-world phenomena into mathematical capabilities. starting with an evidence of the 2 significant components of calculus - differentiation and integration - Gudmund R Iversen illustrates how calculus is utilized in information: to tell apart among the suggest and the median; to derive the least squares formulation for regression co-efficients; to discover values of parameters from theoretical distributions; and to discover a statistical p-value whilst utilizing one of many non-stop attempt variables comparable to the t-variable.

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Extra resources for Calculus (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences)

Sample text

Thus, we get as before. Formally, the chain rule can be stated, This may look more complicated than it really is, but it says the same thing expressed in words above. In the first example, the g function is the sine and the h function is the square. There also exists another way to describe the chain rule. When we have a function f(x), we denote the derivative by f'(x). We can also write y = f(x) and denote the derivative as dy/dx. With this notation we can write the chain rule as Here the function g(x) is denoted as u = g(x).

Applications Maximum and Minimum Largest Area This situation may not befall any of us, but suppose we had 100 yards of chain link fence. With this fence we want to enclose a rectangle. How long should the sides of this rectangle be if the fenced-in area is to be as large as possible? It could be as small as zero, if we strung out 50 yards and returned the remaining 50 yards next to the first. The question now is what should the dimensions of the sides be so that the rectangle is the largest. 1 shows a rectangle that is 100 yards all around, because if we add up the four sides we do get x + (50 x) + x + (50 x) = 100.

Now we are ready to substitute for 1 + 2x, dx, and the limits. We get as before. The method of substitution asks us first to identify some new function y, usually a simpler one than the original function. Except in easy cases like this one, it is not always obvious how we should choose this new function. After we have identified the new function, we need to solve this function for the original variable x. Then we differentiate x with respect to y to find the term dx. Finally, we must change the limits of integration, and then we can substitute for the new function, for dx, and for the new limits of integration.

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