By S. Dhein
An important verbal exchange mechanism among cardiac cells is electric transmission through low resistance pathways, the so-called hole junction channels. This booklet offers a entire evaluate of what's recognized approximately cardiac hole junctions. An advent into a few of the points of activation propagation and coupling within the middle is through a close description of the constitution and variety of hole junctions, together with amino acid sequences and species variability. next chapters speak about their distribution, body structure and capabilities and the law of expression. the writer then is going directly to positioned those simple findings right into a scientific context - the alterations of hole junction distribution during cardiac affliction and their implications. one other bankruptcy provides pharmacological techniques to the modulation of hole junction channel conductivity and descriptions attainable healing ideas. the ultimate a part of the publication describes the tools of research together with double mobilephone voltage clamp, immunohistochemistry, isolation approaches for hole junctions and dye coupling assays.
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Additional info for Cardiac Gap Junctions: Physiology, Regulation, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
The rest of the intercalated disk is made of fascia adherens and desmosomes. , 1994]. However, connexins do not seem to be restricted to the transverse cell boundaries, since they have also been detected in several specimens at the lateral cell side. For example Oosthoek et al. [1993b] demonstrated Cx43positive staining at the lateral cell side of human and bovine hearts (ventricles). Figure 10 shows another example from the rabbit heart, using an anti-Cx43 monoclonal antibody in cryostat sections of the rabbit left ventricle.
However, one has to be cautious with generalizations because, following adrenergic stimulation in the intact heart, intracellular calcium and heart rate will also be enhanced, so that a complex effect will occur which is difficult to assess experimentally. e. the ratio between longitudinal and transverse conduction velocity with regard to the fiber axis, will give insight into the global effect of such a manipulation. De Mello [1986b] reported that adrenaline increased the spread of electrotonic potentials during 4 Function and Physiology of Gap Junction Channels 47 diastolic depolarization in canine Purkinje fibers probably due to a rise in intracellular [cAMP].
E. preventing phosphorylation), induced a higher occurrence of the 100 pS events. , 1992, 1994b]. Several ions are involved in the regulation of gap junctional conductance including Ca2+, Mg2+, H+ and Na+. Very early Ca2+-induced reduction of junctional permeability has been described in Chironomus salivary glands [Rose and Loewenstein, 1975] and heart [De Mello, 1975]. Using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye, aequorin, Rose and Loewenstein [1975, 1976] demonstrated parallel changes in pCa and uncoupling, concluding that the actual pCai is 4 Function and Physiology of Gap Junction Channels 40 responsible for uncoupling.